99 Foley, Henry, Records of the English Province of the Society of Jesus, 7 vols (London: Burns and Oates, 1875), 7.2 30 Surviving evidence indicates that some of the rebels wore agni dei to protect themselves in battle. A search of the Lady West’s house near Winchester in Hampshire in December 1583 revealed a number of contraband devotional objects, including, wrapped in green silk two Agnus dei enclosed in satin broken in many pieces, yet one of them so joined together as the superscription is easy to be read. This data will be updated every 24 hours. Walsham, Alexandra, ‘The Pope’s Merchandise and the Jesuits’ Trumpery: Catholic Relics and Protestant Polemic in Post-Reformation England’, in Jennifer Spinks and Dagmar Eichberger, eds., Religion, the Supernatural, and Visual Culture in Early Modern Europe: An Album Amicorum for Charles Zika (Leiden: Brill, 2015), 370-409 In 1592 a priest named Andrew Clark and two other English recusants visited the houses of John Mosman, Thomas Levinson, and Henry Kerr near the border between England and Scotland, bringing agni dei with them as gifts.Footnote The language of the bull issued by Pius V does not specify that the queen’s subjects could continue to obey her in civil matters. The priest gave the girl a small piece of an agnus dei dissolved in water to drink and cured her paralysis.Footnote Underwood, Lucy, ‘Persuading the Queen’s Majesty’s Subjects from Their Allegiance: Treason, Reconciliation and Confessional Identity in Elizabethan England’, Historical Research 89, 244 (2016): 246-267 Crosignani, Ginevra, McCoog, Thomas, and Questier, Michael, eds., Recusancy and Conformity in Early Modern England: Manuscript and Printed Sources in Translation (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Medieval Studies, 2010), 86-89 London, British Museum 1902,0527.26, http://www.britishmuseum.org/research/collection_online/collection_object_details.aspx?objectId=44619&partId=1 (accessed 7 October 2017). 14. Similarly, the Protestant parents of a twelve-year-old girl resorted to a missionary priest in the residence of St John in 1638, when the child was seized with a sudden illness which left her partially paralysed. 69 I have incorporated two cadential fragments from Süssmayr’s completion into the end of my Benedictus and Agnus Dei. Definition of Agnus Dei. Agnus Dei' En:, Caravaggio y la pintura realista europea, Museu Nacional D'Art de Catalunya, Barcelona, 2005, pp. This raises questions about the degrees to which Catholics were willing to defy the queen’s government after 1570, and whether the missionaries played any role in persuading Catholics into more politically charged expressions of dissent. It is significant that many Catholics continued to collect and employ sacred objects in light of this association. Preservation and veneration of the agnus dei may indeed have served as a spiritual and political connection to Rome, but it also constituted an act of resistance against Queen Elizabeth’s laws of the kind that Pius V demanded when he pronounced her excommunicated and deposed. Interestingly, both of these women had been caught wearing the agnus dei in public. Raine, James, Greenwell, William, and Hodgson, John, eds., Wills and Inventories Illustrative of the History, Manners, Language, and Statistics of the Northern Counties of England, 4 vols (London: Nichols and Son, 1835), 1 32 John Ogilvy worked in espionage from the late 1580s before the Scottish privy council declared him a traitor. 10 Similarly, Trevor Johnson’s assessment of the religious transformation of the Upper Palatinate in the same period demonstrates the significance of a sacred economy of images, sacraments, and sacramental objects to the success of Catholic reforms in the region.Footnote 92 61 Laurence Lux-Sterritt has discussed some of these concepts with respect to the relationships between English Catholic laywomen and the missions. 3 12 William Thornburgh, priest and master of the College of St Mary-On-The-Sea, provided an agnus dei for the college chapel in his will in 1525, which was hung around the neck of a statue of the Blessed Virgin along with ‘certain relics’.Footnote The ceremony was conducted in the first year of a pope’s election and once every seven years thereafter during his pontificate. A sixteenth-century agnus dei which was discovered at Lyford Grange in 1959, where the Jesuit Edmund Campion was captured in 1581, is now kept at Campion Hall in Oxford. Surviving records indicate that over six thousand people joined the rebellion, and prominent amongst the rebels’ grievances was discontent with the ways in which the Protestant religious settlement was being enforced in the northern counties. 20 87 Crafted from the wax of paschal candles, chrism oil, and holy water, the agni dei were stamped with the image of the Lamb of God on one side and the image of a saint or the name and arms of the consecrating pope on the other. 5 See 16 Ric. Because it was consecrated by the pope, the agnus dei was a precious devotional object amongst Catholics in early modern Europe; but in England, it also assumed unusual political connotations after 1570 because of growing conflict between Elizabeth I and the papacy.Footnote 36 Annual letters compiled for 1623, for instance, noted that when a Puritan widow’s house caught fire on the feast of St Andrew, a strong wind prevented her from extinguishing it until one of her Catholic neighbours threw an agnus dei into the flames and made the sign of the cross, which caused the wind to fall and allowed them time to put out the fire. 61 25 Surviving evidence indicates that the efforts of priests to distribute agni dei were well received and they became a potent symbol of confessional difference during the remainder of Elizabeth’s reign. 47 From the government’s perspective, their actions constituted a symbolic display of resistance to the queen that pointed to the potential of all English Catholics to commit treason and attempt to overthrow her. The author is grateful to the Catholic Record Society for the award of a grant and studentship which helped to fund part of the research for this article. The papacy frequently sent boxes of agni dei as gifts to queens regnant and consort who were expecting or had just delivered children.Footnote McCoog, Thomas, ‘Martin, Gregory (1542?–1582)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2004), http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/18183 (accessed 1 Oct 2017)Google Scholar. Because the wax medallions were fragile, it was also common to break an agnus dei into smaller pieces to be shared amongst the faithful, and carried in cases for protection.Footnote See for instance In July 1577 Nicholas Sander received word of a ‘great miracle’ that transpired at a trial in Oxford, when a number of judges, jurors, and attendees at the court were suddenly struck with a mysterious illness during prosecutions of recusants for the veneration of crucifixes and agni dei. "lang": "en" I c.2. During the Jesuit John Gerard’s mission to England in the 1590s, he gave an agnus dei embedded with a fragment of the true cross to Richard Burke, the baron of Dunkellin, when the young man begged him to hear his confessions before fighting a duel, saying to Burke ‘you may hope that perhaps for its sake God will protect you from danger and give you time to repent’.Footnote When the house of George, Bridget, and Elizabeth Brome in Oxfordshire was searched in August, officials found an agnus dei and a pair of blessed beads amongst the belongings of the sisters, which also included several crucifixes and a box of ‘massing cakes’.Footnote The sharing of sacramentals amongst the laity would have helped to achieve these ends. 100 See Molly Murray, ‘“Now I ame a Catholique”: William Alabaster and the Early Modern Catholic Conversion Narrative’, in Corthell et al., Catholic Culture, 189-215, for similar stories of reconciliation and conversion; see also Lux-Sterritt, ‘“Virgo Becomes Virago”: Women in the Accounts of Seventeenth-Century English Catholic Missionaries’, Recusant History 30 (2011): 537-553 77 He began to wear the agnus dei after meeting with a seminary priest in 1594.Footnote By permission of the Governors of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire. By permission of the Governors of Stonyhurst College, Lancashire. 6 Members of Catholic networks who received the sacramentals from missionary priests would also have been able to assist in reconciling other members of their social circles. At the same time, this process shows continuities between Catholic missions to England and those operating in other parts of the early modern world. TNA SP 15/21 f. 133. However, with the accession of Elizabeth I and the settlement of religion in 1559, which re-established an official, Protestant English Church, sacramentals and other Catholic devotional objects once again became targets of suspicion and ridicule, as the new, reformed establishment set about dismantling the Catholicism restored under Mary I. Bowes affirmed that he was ‘drawn to believe’ this because he had seen Ogilvy’s ‘Agnus Dei, hosts, and such like Romish Trifles’.Footnote Those caught wearing or using any such items would likewise suffer the penalties of the statute.Footnote Cordy Jeaffreson, John, ed. Cooper, John, The Queen’s Agent: Francis Walsingham at the Court of Elizabeth I (London: Bloomsbury, 2011), 180-182 Google Scholar. See A.J. Martin also studied with Edmund Campion at the English College in Douai. The front of the case contains a miniature figure of the Blessed Virgin Mary holding the infant Jesus, which is thought to be carved from the wood of a tree that once stood in the college courtyard at St Omer. He returned to Scotland briefly in 1600, when the incident above took place. 1.6 cm, British Museum University of Cambridge, 2016 ), 39-47 Google Scholar relic the! Sent back to England to be added to the relationships between English Catholic life after 1570: ‘ Way. 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